Though the magazine regularly mocks the beliefs of both Catholics and Protestants, its offices were only destroyed after publishing a recent cartoon of Muhammad, and claiming that Islam's prophet is the latest editor-and-chief.
The violent response to this cartoon is connected to the publication of the Danish Muhammad cartoons in 2005. After Muslim outrage erupted around the world, Charlie Hebdo republished the cartoons in 2006 and was later sued by Muslims.
The Telegraph has put together a brief history of the Muhammad cartoons:
A series of cartoons, some depicting the Prophet Muhammad as a terrorist with a bomb, are published by Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.
Egyptian newspaper al-Fagr reprints some of the cartoons, slamming them as a "continuing insult" and a "racist bomb".
Ambassadors from 10 Islamic countries complain to the Danish prime minister about the cartoons.
A Norwegian newspaper reprints the cartoons.
Saudi Arabia recalls its ambassador to Denmark. Libya closes its embassy in Copenhagen.
Gunmen raid the EU's offices in Gaza, demanding an apology over the cartoons.
The Danish paper apologises. The Danish prime minister welcomes the apology but says the freedom of the press must be upheld.
Papers in France, Germany, Italy and Spain reprint the caricatures, defying Muslim outrage.
The editor of the French newspaper France Soir is fired for printing the cartoons.
Syrians attack Danish and Norwegian embassies in Damascus.
Lebanese demonstrators torch the Danish embassy in Beirut, sparking Interior Minister Hassan Sabeh's resignation.
Hundreds of Iranians attack the Danish embassy in Tehran as Iran cuts trade ties with Denmark.
French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo publishes the cartoons along with its own front page of Mohammed, lamenting fundamentalist violence, saying: "It's hard to be loved by imbeciles." French President Jacques Chirac condemns decisions to reprint the cartoons as "overt provocation".
Hundreds of thousands of Shia Muslims in Lebanon protest during a religious ceremony.
Thousands protest over the cartoons outside a conference in Kuala Lumpur, in which Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi claims a huge chasm has opened between the West and Islam.
Denmark's foreign ministry urges all Danes to leave Indonesia over security fears.
A leading Iranian newspaper, the Hamshahri Daily, launches a cartoon contest about the Holocaust, to "test" the boundaries of free speech for Westerners.
Pakistani security guards shoot dead two protesters in Lahore.
British and German embassies in Iran and Basra city council in southern Iraq come under attack, amid calls for Danish troops to leave the country.
Three people die in the Pakistan cities of Peshawar and Lahore.
Italian government minister Roberto Calderoli says he is distributing T-shirts displaying the controversial cartoons.
At least 10 people are killed and several injured in Benghazi, Libya during a protest outside the Italian consulate.
Denmark temporarily closes its embassy in Pakistan over security fears and briefly recalls its ambassador. Pakistan makes 100 arrests.
Sixteen people are killed in attacks against Christians in the northern Nigerian city of Maiduguri.
Italian reform minister Calderoni resigns, sparking suspension of Libyan Interior Minister Nasr al-Mabrouk over the Benghazi rioting.
Police reportedly open fire at demonstrators in the eastern Pakistan town of Chaniot, injuring four.
Protest in Islamabad, Pakistan, in defiance of ban.
Tens of thousands of protesters march against Denmark, Israel and the United States, at a rally in Istanbul, Turkey.
Several Muslim groups take French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo to court for publicly "insulting" Islam by publishing controversial Danish cartoons, Charlie Hebdo's director and editor-in-chief, Philippe Val, described the trial as a "witch hunt." Francois Hollande, then Socialist party secretary, and centrist presidential candidate Francois Bayrou also testified in favour of freedom of expression.
Letter read out in court from Nicolas Sarkozy, then interior minister, who said he preferred "too many caricatures to an absence of caricature".
The French newspaper Libération reprints the Mohammed cartoons anew.
The head of Charlie Hebdo, cleared of "racial insults" for publishing controversial Danish cartoons.
Court rules that Philippe Val is free to publish such cartoons, which it says targeted Islamic fundamentalists but not Muslims in general.
United Nations Human Rights Council adopts non-binding text proposed by Pakistan on behalf of Islamic states which "prohibits the defamation of religion", despite wide concerns that it could be used to justify curbs on free speech in Muslim countries.
Danish Muslim organisation loses a libel court case against the Danish People's Party for publicising the cartoon. The group, the Islamic Faith Community, threatens a fatwa against Jyllands-Posten unless the paper apologises.
Mizanur Rahman, 24, Umran Javed, 27, and Abdul Muhid, 24, are each jailed for six years for soliciting to murder after telling a crowd to bomb the UK.
Abdul Saleem, 32, is jailed for four years for stirring up racial hatred at the protest in 2006. The men are from London and Birmingham.
Danish police arrested several people suspected of planning to assassinate the cartoonist who drew the turban cartoon.
Several Danish newspapers, including Jyllands-Posten, reprint one of the cartoons.
A video allegedly from Osama bin Laden threatens the EU over the reprinting of the cartoon, which he claims is part of a "new Crusade" against Islam, in which he said the Pope has played a "large and lengthy role."
Mohamed Geele, a 28-year-old Somali Muslim intruder armed with an axe and knife enters Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard's house, screaming "You must die!" and "You are going to Hell!". He is shot and wounded by police.
Danish intelligence say he has links to Somalia's Islamist movement Al-Shabab.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel honours cartoonist Kurt Westergaard with M100 media prize for his "courage" to defend democratic values despite threats of violence and death.
Danish and Swedish intelligence services arrest five men for allegedly planning to "to kill as many of the people present as possible" in the Jyllands-Posten Copenhagen newsdesk.
Mohamed Geele, the Somali who broke into the home of Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard is convicted of attempted murder and terrorism, and jailed for nine years.
"Day of Rage" in Libya and by the Conference for the Libyan Opposition, which turns into anti-Gaddafi rally but was initially to commemorate the 10 deaths in anti-cartoon demonstrations in Benghazi on 17 February 2006.
French satirical weekly Charlie Hebdo's Paris offices are burned in an apparent arson attack on the day after it publishes an issue with the Prophet Muhammed as its "editor-in-chief". He is depicted on the front page saying: "100 lashes if you don't die of laughter".
All of this outrage and violence is the Muslim response to cartoons. And yet the media and our politicians continue to assure us that there is no conflict between Islam and Western values.